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Epidemiological studies have traditionally assigned exposure based on monitoring results of a central monitoring site in the city of residence. In the last decade, methods for more individual exposure estimates have been applied, including land use regression models (LUR) and dispersion models. Some studies have shown differences between long-term average personal and ambient air pollution exposure. In the latter studies, integrated personal samplers were used that provided a single sample over 1-2 days. Hence no assessment of the contribution of different microenvironments to total exposure (and difference) was possible.